David (/ˈdeɪvɪd/; Hebrew: דָּוִד, Modern David, Tiberian Dāwîḏ;ISO 259-3 Dawid; Arabic: داوُد Dāwūd; Syriac: ܕܘܝܕ Dawid; Ancient Greek: Δαυίδ; Latin: Davidus, David; Strong's: Daveed) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel, and according to the New Testament, an ancestor of Jesus. His life is conventionally dated to c. 1040 – 970 BCE, his reign over Judah c. 1010–970 BCE.
The Books of Samuel, 1 Kings, and 1 Chronicles are the only Old Testament sources of information on David, although the Tel Dan Stele (dated c. 850–835 BCE) contains the phrase בית דוד (bytdwd), read as "House of David", which many scholars confirm to be a likely plausible match to the existence in the mid-9th century BCE of a Judean royal dynasty called the House of David.
Depicted as a valorous warrior of great renown, and a poet and musician credited for composing much of the psalms contained in the Book of Psalms, King David is widely viewed as a righteous and effective king in battle and civil justice. He is described as a man after God's own heart in 1 Samuel 13:14 and Acts 13:22.
In Christianity, David is an important figure because of the Davidic line of the Messiah.
According to 1 Samuel 17, the 'men of Israel' under King Saul faced the Philistines near the Valley of Elah. The two armies are encamped within sight of each other for several days but battle has not been joined; instead the Philistine's champion, the giant Goliath, issues daily challenges to single combat. David arrives in camp, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers with the army. He hears Goliath's challenge and comments that the uncircumcised Philistine should not insult the army of the living God. Brought to the king, he expresses confidence that he can defeat Goliath just as he has a lion and a bear that threatened the flock.
David holds the impaled head of Goliath and marches before a general on a white horse, as envisioned by Poussin, ca. 1632 Before the ordeal David picks five smooth stones from a nearby brook to use as ammunition. During the duel he avoids Goliath's thrown spear and easily kills him with his sling, afterward removing the giant's head with his own sword as the Philistines flee in terror. Saul inquires about the name of the young champion's father and David tells him that he is the son of Jesse. In 2 Samuel 22, David credits God for delivering him from the hand of the Philistines and saving him from "the snares of death," in his psalm, "David’s Song of Praise."